Calculate Averages

(See the Calculate Averages How To guide (PDF).)

Perform the cycle grade calculations for the appropriate weighting type for the course. For more information, see the following sections at the end of this page:

Percent-based

For percent-based weighting, each category is assigned a percentage. The percentages total 100%.

Note:

If you have extra credit assignment(s), the points for the assignment(s) are added to the Total Points Earned. See the Extra Credit section below for examples.

Formula

1.        For each category, take the sum of all points earned for all assignments:

Points Earned 1 + Points Earned 2 + Points Earned 3 = Total Points Earned

Note:

If you have extra credit assignment(s), the points for the assignment(s) are added to the Total Points Earned. See the Extra Credit section below for examples.

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments. The student earned a 70/100, 80/100, and 90/95 for those assignments.

(70 + 80 + 90) = 240

The Test category has two tests. The student earned a 45/50 and 100/100 for those tests.

(45 + 100) = 145

The Cycle Exam category has no grades yet.

2.        For each category, take the sum of all possible points for all assignments:

Possible Points 1 + Possible Points 2 + Possible Points 3 = Total Possible Points

Note:

Some teachers may have total possible points for an assignment that are not 100 (e.g., 90/95).

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments. The student earned a 70/100, 80/100, and 90/95 for those assignments.

(100 + 100 + 95) = 295

The student’s Total Possible Points for the Homework category is 295.

The Test category has two tests. The student earned a 45/50 and 100/100 for those tests.

(50 + 100) = 150

The student’s Total Possible Points for the Test category is 150.

3.        For each category, divide the Total Points Earned by the Total Possible Points:

Total Points Earned / Total Possible Points = Category Average

For example:

The student’s Total Points Earned for the Homework category is 240. The student’s Total Possible Points for homework is 295.

240 / 295 = .814

The student’s Homework Category Average is 81.4.

The student’s Total Points Earned for the Test category is 145. The student’s Total Possible Points for the Test Category is 150.

145 / 150 = .967

The student’s Test Category Average is 96.7.

4.        For each category, multiply the Category Average by the Category Weight:

Category Average x Category Weight = Category Value

For example:

The weight for the Homework category is 50%.

81.4 x 50% = 40.7

The weight for the Test category is 40%.

96.7 x 40% = 38.7

The weight for the Cycle Exam category is 10%, but there is no category average.

5.        Take the sum of all Category Values:

Category Value 1 + Category Value 2 + Category Value 3 = Total

For example:

Add the category values for the Homework and Test categories. There is no category value for the Cycle Exam category.

40.7 + 38.7 = 79.4

6.        Divide the Total by the sum of the weights of the categories that have grades, and then multiply by 100:

(Total / 100) x 100 = Average (if all categories have grades)

(Total / Cat Sum) x 100 = Average (if some categories do not yet have grades)

For example:

The sum of the weights of the Homework category and Test category is 90. The Cycle Exam category is omitted from the sum because it does not have grades.

The student's Total is 79.4.

(79.4 / 90) x 100 = 88.2

The student's average is 88.

Point-based

For point-based weighting, each category has a point value. The point values equal the total number of points for the cycle. The calculation is based on the total points, not weighting.

Note:

If you have extra credit assignment(s), the points for the assignment(s) are added to the Category Points. See the Extra Credit section below for examples.

Formula

1.        For each category, take the sum of points earned on all assignments:

Points 1 + Points 2 + Points 3 = Category Points

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments, each worth 50 points. The student earned a 40, 45, and 50 for those assignments.

40 + 45 + 50 = 135

The Test category has two tests, each worth 50 points. The student earned a 40 and 50 for those tests.

40 + 50 = 90

2.        Take the sum of the points earned in all categories:

Category 1 Points + Category 2 Points + Category 3 Points = Total Points

For example:

Add the points for the Homework category and the Test category.

135 + 90 = 225

3.        Divide the Total Points by the Total Possible Points, and multiply by 100:

(Total Points / Total Possible Points) x 100 = Average

For example:

The student's total points is 225. The total possible points is 250.

(225 / 250) x 100 = 90

The student's average is 90.

Multiplier-based

For multiplier-based weighting, each category has a multiplier number (between 1-9). For multipliers greater than one, the individual assignment grades are counted multiple times. Multiplier-based weighting is often used in elementary schools.

Note:

If you have extra credit assignment(s), the points for the assignment(s) are added to the Actual Category Points. See the Extra Credit section below for examples.

Formula

1.        Calculate the category actual value:

For each category, add the sum of the points earned for each assignment:

Points Assignment 1 + Points Assignment 2 + Points Assignment 3 = Actual Category Points

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments, each worth 100 points. The student earned a 70, 80, and 90 for those assignments.

70 + 80 + 90 = 240

The Test category has two tests, each worth 100 points. The student earned a 90 and 100 for those tests.

90 + 100 = 190

2.        For each category, multiply the Actual Category Points by the multiplier value:

Actual Category Points x M = Actual Category Value, where M is the multiplier value

For example:

The multiplier for the Homework category is 2.

240 x 2 = 480

The multiplier for the Test category is 1.

190 x 1 = 190

3.        Add the sum of the actual category values for all categories:

Actual Category Value + Actual Category Value = Actual Value Total

For example:

Add the actual values for the Homework category and the Test category.

480 + 190 = 670

4.        Calculate the category possible value:

For each category, add the sum of the possible points for each assignment:

Possible Points Assignment 1 + Possible Points Assignment 2 + Possible Points Assignment 3 = Possible Category Points

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments, each worth 100 points.

100 + 100 + 100 = 300

The Test category has two assignments, each worth 100 points.

100 + 100 = 200

5.        For each category, multiply the Possible Category Points by the multiplier value:

Possible Category Points x M = Possible Category Value, where M is the multiplier value

For example:

The multiplier for the Homework category is 2.

300 x 2 = 600

The multiplier for the Test category is 1.

200 x 1 = 200

6.        Add the sum of the possible category values for all categories:

Possible Category Value + Possible Category Value = Actual Value Total

For example:

Add the possible values for the Homework category and the Test category.

600 + 200 = 800

7.        Calculate the average:

Divide the actual category value by the possible category value, and then multiply by 100.

(Actual Value Total / Possible Value) x 100 = Average

For example:

The student's value for actual points earned is 670. The value for possible points is 800.

(670 / 800) x 100 = 83.7

The student's average is 84.

Extra Credit

If an assignment is for extra credit, the Extra Credit check box is selected for the assignment on the Administer Assignments page. Extra credit assignments add points to the average for the category selected. If a student has no grade or a zero for the extra credit assignment, it does not count against him when his average is calculated.

Note:

If you want to give an extra credit assignment that will be included in the cycle average for the students who do the assignment (but not for those who do not do it), create a regular assignment (not extra credit), and then exclude the grade for all students who do not complete the assignment. For more information on excluding assignments, review the Help for the Comments field on the Assignment Grades page.

Percent-based with an Extra Credit Assignment

Formula

1.        For each category, take the sum of all points earned for all assignments:

Points Earned 1 + Points Earned 2 + Points Earned 3 = Total Points Earned

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments. The student earned a 70/100, 80/100, and 90/95 for those assignments.

(70 + 80 + 90) = 240

The Test category has two tests. The student earned a 45/50 and 100/100 for those tests.

(45 + 100) = 145

The Cycle Exam category has no grades yet.

2.        For each category, add any extra credit (EC) assignment points to the Total Points Earned:

Total Points Earned + EC = new Total Points Earned

For example:

For the Homework category, the student has 10 extra credit points.

240 + 10 = 250

The student’s new Total Points Earned for the Homework category is 250.

3.        For each category, take the sum of all possible points for all assignments:

Possible Points 1 + Possible Points 2 + Possible Points 3 = Total Possible Points

Note:

Some teachers may have total possible points for an assignment that are not 100 (e.g., 90/95).

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments. The student earned a 70/100, 80/100, and 90/95 for those assignments.

(100 + 100 + 95) = 295

The student’s Total Possible Points for the Homework category is 295.

The Test category has two tests. The student earned a 45/50 and 100/100 for those tests.

(50 + 100) = 150

The student’s Total Possible Points for the Test category is 150.

4.        For each category, divide the Total Points Earned by the Total Possible Points:

Total Points Earned / Total Possible Points = Category Average

For example:

The student’s Total Points Earned for the Homework category is 250 (which includes the extra credit assignment). The student’s Total Possible Points for homework is 295.

250 / 295 = .847

The student’s Homework Category Average is 84.7.

The student’s Total Points Earned for the Test category is 145. The student’s Total Possible Points for the Test category is 150.

145 / 150 = .967

The student’s Test Category Average is 96.7.

5.        For each category, multiply the Category Average by the Category Weight:

Category Average x Category Weight = Category Value

For example:

The weight for the Homework category is 50%.

84.7 x 50% = 42.4

The weight for the Test category is 40%.

96.7 x 40% = 38.7

The weight for the Cycle Exam category is 10%, but there is no category average.

6.        Take the sum of all Category Values:

Category Value 1 + Category Value 2 + Category Value 3 = Total

For example:

Add the category values for the Homework and Test categories. There is no category value for the Cycle Exam category.

42.4 + 38.7 = 81.1

7.        Divide the Total by the sum of the weights for the categories that have grades, and then multiply by 100:

(Total / 100) x 100 = Average (if all categories have grades)

(Total / Cat Sum) x 100 = Average (if some categories do not yet have grades)

For example:

The sum of the weights of the Homework category and Test category is 90. The Cycle Exam category is omitted from the sum because it does not have grades.

The student's Total is 81.1.

(81.1 / 90) x 100 = 90.1

The student's average is 90.

Point-based with an Extra Credit Assignment

Formula

1.        For each category, take the sum of points earned on all assignments:

Points 1 + Points 2 + Points 3 = Category Points

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments, each worth 50 points. The student earned a 40, 45, and 50 for those assignments.

40 + 45 + 50 = 135

The Test category has two tests, each worth 50 points. The student earned a 40 and 50 for those tests.

40 + 50 = 90

2.        Add the points for the extra credit (EC) assignment to the Category Points:

Category Points + EC = new Category Points

For example:

The student’s Homework Category Points is 135. The student was awarded 5 points for a homework extra credit assignment.

135 + 5 = 140

3.        Take the sum of the points earned in all categories:

Category 1 Points + Category 2 Points + Category 3 Points = Total Points

For example:

Add the points for the Homework category and the Test category.

140 + 90 = 230

4.        Divide the Total Points by the Total Possible Points, and multiply by 100:

(Total Points / Total Possible Points) x 100 = Average

For example:

The student's total points is 230. The total possible points is 250.

(230 / 250) x 100 = 92

The student's average is 92.

Multiplier-based with an Extra Credit Assignment

Formula

1.        Calculate the category actual value:

For each category, add the sum of the points earned for each assignment:

Points Assignment 1 + Points Assignment 2 + Points Assignment 3 = Actual Category Points

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments, each worth 100 points. The student earned a 70, 80, and 90 for those assignments.

70 + 80 + 90 = 240

The Test category has two tests, each worth 100 points. The student earned a 90 and 100 for those tests.

90 + 100 = 190

2.        Add the points for the extra credit (EC) assignment to the Actual Category Points:

Actual Category Points + EC = new Actual Category Points

For example:

The student’s Homework Actual Category Points is 240. The student was awarded 5 points for a homework extra credit assignment.

240 + 5 = 245

3.        For each category, multiply the Actual Category Points by the multiplier value:

Actual Category Points x M = Actual Category Value, where M is the multiplier value

For example:

The multiplier for the Homework category is 2.

245 x 2 = 490

The multiplier for the Test category is 1.

190 x 1 = 190

4.        Add the sum of the actual category values for all categories:

Actual Category Value + Actual Category Value = Actual Value Total

For example:

Add the actual values for the Homework category and the Test category.

490 + 190 = 680

5.        Calculate the category possible value:

For each category, add the sum of the possible points for each assignment:

Possible Points Assignment 1 + Possible Points Assignment 2 + Possible Points Assignment 3 = Possible Category Points

For example:

The Homework category has three assignments, each worth 100 points.

100 + 100 + 100 = 300

The Test category has two assignments, each worth 100 points.

100 + 100 = 200

6.        For each category, multiply the Possible Category Points by the multiplier value:

Possible Category Points x M = Possible Category Value, where M is the multiplier value

For example:

The multiplier for the Homework category is 2.

300 x 2 = 600

The multiplier for the Test category is 1.

200 x 1 = 200

7.        Add the sum of the possible category values for all categories:

Possible Category Value + Possible Category Value = Actual Value Total

For example:

Add the possible values for the Homework category and the Test category.

600 + 200 = 800

8.        Calculate the average:

Divide the actual category value by the possible category value, and then multiply by 100.

(Actual Value Total / Possible Value) x 100 = Average

For example:

The student's value for actual points earned is 680. The value for possible points is 800.

(680 / 800) x 100 = 85

The student's average is 85.

Extra Points

To add extra points to an assignment grade:

Adding extra points to an assignment grade is different from an extra credit assignment. If you enter an assignment with the Total Points field set to 100, you can enter a grade that is greater than 100. In this case, it is not necessary to enter an extra credit assignment.

To add extra points to the cycle average:

If you want to award extra credit points to the overall cycle average, use the cycle Override field on the Cycle Grades page.

Transfer Students

If a student transfers into the course during a cycle, the following calculations are used to determine his working cycle average:

1.        For the transfer grade, multiply the Transfer Average by the Transfer Weight:

Transfer Average x Transfer Weight = Transfer Value

For example:

The student's Transfer Average is 74.

The student's Transfer Weight is 55%.

74 x 55% = 40.7

The student's Transfer Value is 40.7.

2.        Calculate the average of the student's assignment grades (for the remainder of the cycle) using the steps described above under Percent-based, Point-based, or Multiplier-based.

For example:

The percent-based example above shows a Working Cycle Average of 88.

3.        Calculate the weight for the Working Cycle Average:

100% - Transfer Weight = Working Cycle Average Weight

For example:

The student's Transfer Weight is 55%.

100% - 55% = 45%

The student's Working Cycle Average Weight is 45%.

4.        Calculate the Working Cycle Average Value:

Working Cycle Average x Working Cycle Average Weight = Working Cycle Average Value

For example:

The student's Working Cycle Average is 88.

The student's Working Cycle Average Weight is 45%.

88 x 45% = 39.6

The student's Working Cycle Average Value is 39.6.

5.        Take the sum of the Transfer Value and the Working Cycle Average Value:

Transfer Value + Working Cycle Average Value = Actual Working Cycle Average

For example:

The student's Transfer Value is 40.7.

The student's Working Cycle Average Value is 39.6.

40.7 + 39.6 = 80.3

The student's Actual Working Cycle Average is 80.

If a student transferred from a course that posts letter grades to a course that posts numeric grades, and a letter grade is entered for his transfer average, the grade conversion table is used to determine the numeric value.

Dropped Assignment Grades

If the # Drop field on the Administer Categories page is set to a value other than 0 for any categories, the following applies:

      For all weighting types (percent, point, and multiplier), the number of assignment grades to drop is figured in when calculating the total points earned. If the number of grades entered is greater than the number of grades to drop, the lowest X grades are dropped, where X is the specified number to drop for that category. If the number of grades to drop is greater than or equal to the number of grades entered, no grades are dropped.

      If a student has an assignment grade of M (missing), the grade is calculated as a zero; therefore, missing grades can be dropped, if applicable.

      The student's average will always reflect the dropped grades.

Warning:

If all assignments in a category do not have the same total points value (as entered on the Administer Assignments page), the calculations for dropping a specified number of assignments for the category may result in an average that is different than expected. If the total points value varies, the grade with the lowest number of points may not necessarily be the lowest grade.

Rounding Numbers

When calculating a student's cycle average, be aware of the following details:

      Assignment grades are always whole numbers (i.e., no decimals).

      When a category average is displayed on a student's Cycle Grades page or IPR, it is rounded to the nearest whole number. If the number to the right of the decimal is 5 or greater, the displayed grade is rounded up. If the number to the right of the decimal is less than 5, the displayed grade is rounded down.

For example, if the student's category average is 89.5, the IPR and Cycle Grades page display 90 for the category average. If the student's category average is 90.49, the IPR and Cycle Grades page display 90 for the category average.

      When calculating a student's cycle average, the category average is not rounded. The program uses the entire unrounded number (i.e., 32-bit precision) to calculate the cycle average.

Warning:

If you use the rounded category average to calculate a student's cycle average, you may get a different average than the average produced by the program, since the program does not use the rounded category average.

      Once the cycle average is calculated, it is rounded to the nearest whole number. The cycle average is always displayed as a whole number.

      When the semester average is calculated, the rounded cycle averages are used. The semester average is rounded to the nearest whole number. The semester average is always displayed as a whole number.

Missing and Incomplete Grades

When calculating a student's average, be aware of the following details:

      If a student has an assignment grade of M (missing), the grade is calculated as a zero. A missing grade can be dropped, if applicable.

      (iTCCS only) For courses that use skills-referenced grading, a campus-wide option determines how a grade of M is calculated in the student's average:

      The grade M may be set to equal zero when the student's average is calculated. If a student receives a grade of M, the grade can be changed when the student completes the work.

      If grade M is not set to equal zero when the student's average is calculated, the grade is bypassed.

This does not apply to courses that are not set up to use skills-referenced grading.

      If a student has an assignment grade of I (incomplete), no averages are calculated, and an I is displayed in place of the average. The grade remains an I until a grade is entered for the assignment.

Power Law Computation

For campuses that use standards-based/skills-referenced grading, a student's standard/skill score may reflect the average for the standard/skill, which is calculated by adding all scores for all assignments associated with the standard/skill, and dividing by the number of assignments. Or, the student's score may be calculated using the Power Law computation. The higher of the two is always displayed as the student's standard/skill score, unless the teacher has entered an override score.

The Power Law computation is based on the idea that a student's later scores should have more weight than his earliest scores, because later scores are more reflective of the student's accumulated knowledge.

The nonlinear Power Law equation is y = m * xb, where:

      y is the score that is being predicted or computed.

      x is the score on which the prediction is based, indicating the number of practices the student has had for the standard/skill. For example, if the student has had three assessments to date, starting with a homework assignment, then a quiz, and then a test, the x score for the homework assignment would be 1, for the quiz would be 2, and for the test would be 3. Each score must have a corresponding assessment number.

Steps:

      Calculate the log of x and the log of y for all possible x values and all possible y values.

      Use the log values for x and y in the linear equation y = mx + b (i.e., log(y) = m * log(x) + b).

      Solve for m in this linear equation to get the value for b for the nonlinear equation.

Power Law linear equation to solve for m

      Solve for b in this linear equation to get log(m). Calculate m using the formula m = elog(m) to get the value for m in the nonlinear equation.

Power Law linear equation to solve for b

      Use the new values for m and b in the nonlinear Power Law equation.

Calculation of Semester Averages

Semester averages are calculated during the last cycle of the semester according to options set in the Student systems:

      For TxEIS, the fields are set in the Grade Reporting application on the Maintenance > Tables > Campus Control Options > Computation tab.

      For iTCCS, the fields are set in the Campus application on the Grade Reporting Options (3) WST0175.

TxEIS

If Include Exam in Semester Average is selected on the Computation tab, the following occurs:

      If Exam Weight Equal is selected, the exam grade is given the same weight as the cycle averages when calculating the semester average. For example, if there are three cycles in the semester, the student's cycle averages are 80, 85, and 90, and the student earned 100 on the semester exam, the semester average calculation is as follows:

(80 + 85 + 90 + 100) / 4

      If Exam Weight Equal is unselected, the Total Weight and Exam Weight fields are used together to indicate the percentage the semester exam should count toward the total semester grade.

The semester average calculation for a three-cycle semester is as follows:

( ( (Cycle 1 + Cycle 2 + Cycle 3) / 3 x (Total Weight - Exam Weight) ) + (Exam Grade x Exam Weight) ) / Total Weight

For example, if there are three cycles in the semester, the student’s cycle averages are 80, 80, and 80; the student earned 90 on the semester exam; the Total Weight is 50; and the Exam Weight is 7, the semester average calculation is as follows:

(80 + 80 + 80) / 3 x (50 - 7) + (90 x 7) / 50 = 81.4

iTCCS

If the Include Exam in Semester Average field is set to Yes, the following occurs:

      If the Exam Weight Equal field is set to Yes, the exam grade is given the same weight as the cycle averages when calculating the semester average. For example, if there are three cycles in the semester, the student's cycle averages are 80, 85, and 90, and the student earned 100 on the semester exam, the semester average calculation is as follows:

(80 + 85 + 90 + 100) / 4

      If the Exam Weight Equal field is set to No, the Total Weight and Exam Weight fields are used together to indicate the percentage the semester exam should count toward the total semester grade.

The semester average calculation for a three-cycle semester is as follows:

( ( (Cycle 1 + Cycle 2 + Cycle 3) / 3 x (Total Weight - Exam Weight) ) + (Exam Grade x Exam Weight) ) / Total Weight

For example, if there are three cycles in the semester, the student’s cycle averages are 80, 80, and 80; the student earned 90 on the semester exam; the Total Weight is 50; and the Exam Weight is 7, the semester average calculation is as follows:

(80 + 80 + 80) / 3 x (50 - 7) + (90 x 7) / 50 = 81.4

      For middle school students (i.e., students in grade level 6, 7, or 8) who are taking a high school-level course (i.e., a course for which the Credit Lvl field is set to H in Grade Reporting on the Maintenance > Master Schedule > District Schedule page), the following occurs:

      If the Exam Weight Equal for High Sch Level Courses field is set to Yes, the exam grade is given the same weight as the cycle averages when calculating the semester average. For example, if there are three cycles in the semester, the student's cycle averages are 80, 85, and 90, and the student earned 100 on the semester exam, the semester average calculation is as follows:

(80 + 85 + 90 + 100) / 4

      If the Exam Weight Equal for High Sch Level Courses is set to No, the Middle School Total Weight and Middle School Exam Weight fields are used instead of the Total Weight and Exam Weight fields to indicate the percentage the semester exam should count toward the total semester grade.

( ( (Cycle 1 + Cycle 2 + Cycle 3) / 3 x (Middle School Total Weight - Middle School Exam Weight) ) + (Exam Grade x Middle School Exam Weight) ) / Middle School Total Weight